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sneezing on foods and work surfaces, hands must be washed Microorganisms Mouth/ Audito- Con- Vagi- Ure- Bowel/ after coughing/sneezing); (Examples) Nose/ ry canal junc- na/ thra/ Stool 33 Pharynx (exter- tiva Cervix UrineNo smoking, eating or drinking at the work station; 33 Sputum nal)Inform superiors immediately if ill or injured: Consult a doctor if necessary and inform him that you work in a food preparation Micrococci N N N (N) N area. Staphylococcus (K) (K) (K) K KAureus Hand hygiene plays an essential role under the heading ‘personnel hygiene.’ The rules governing hand washing and disinfection must streptococci N (N) (N)Viridens be observed without fail. Germs can escape from every human Enterococcus (N) (N) (N) orifice – not just from the nose and mouth (when sneezing and Group A coughing) but also from the ears, vagina, urethra and bowels (see streptococcus K K table on the right). pneumoniae KDiplococcus Hands must therefore always be thoroughly washed after going to Corynebacterium K K the toilet. This is especially important: If this simple precaution diphtheriae is not taken, any subsequent staff member will get the germs on Listeria monocy- K togenes their own hands simply from having pressed the door handle – and Bacteroides types N transmit them onto the food. There are people who eliminate live Molds (K) salmonella from their bowel with each stool without developing Candidiasis (K) (K) (K) (K) (N) (N) salmonellosis themselves. For these asymptomatic salmonella car- Actinomyces (K) riers, hand hygiene is especially important. It should be noted that Trichomonas K K there is a ban on employing this group of people in the food sector. vaginalis As medical examinations are no longer prescribed before taking Enterobacteria- up employment and thus are often not carried out, those affected proteus and kleb- (K) (K) (N) (K) Nceae (e.g. E. coli, are often not even aware of their condition. Added to this is the fact siella) that one can become an asymptomatic carrier even years after a Salmonella K medical examination. This circumstance alone clearly underscores Shigella K the need to wash your hands. As a basic principle, hands must be Campylobacter- washed in the following situations: types K 33 aeruginosa (K) (K) (K) (K)PseudomonasWhen hands are visibly dirty 33 LactobacillusBefore beginning work 33 HaemophilusBefore and after breaks 33 types (K) (K)When changing tasks 33 Haemophilus KAfter going to the toilet 33 influenzaeAfter blowing your nose or sneezing 33 pertussis KBordetellaBefore serving food Whether hands must also be disinfected after washing must be Mycobacterium K K K decided in each particular case. If wearing disposable gloves is tuberculosis part of the routine, disinfecting the hands is not usually neces- The chart shows how pathogens may come out of all body orifices sary. When working in hygiene-sensitive areas, disposable gloves N = normal colonization (normal germ flora) should immediately be changed or thoroughly washed each time (N) = to be classified as normal in small numbers K = pathogenic they are soiled. The same applies to sneezing and coughing as well (K) = to be classified as pathogenic in larger numbers as when switching from an unclean area to a clean one. Table: Hahn What needs to be disinfected? ing the work area. This alone will eliminate 99.9 percent of the It is a different matter for kitchen work surfaces and certain equip- germs that might be present. Disinfection is only used when par- ment items. If, after preparing meat, the same surface will be used ticularly high standards of hygiene are called for and even more to dice raw vegetables for a salad, the work surface should be germs are to be killed. In contrast to sterilization however, not all thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after one is done preparing the germs are destroyed by disinfection. meat. Raw meat contains pathogens that must not be permitted to Many germs can be found in the cracks of cutting boards. As the settle in the raw salad because it won’t be heated and the germs cutting surfaces cannot be adequately cleaned by hand washing can continue to multiply unhindered until the salad is consumed. with brushes and cloths, they should be washed and disinfected A basic operating principle: Always start out by thoroughly clean- in a dish washer. GLOBAL CLEANING | ISSUE 2016 25


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